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#Epic | Feats of Argentine Design 2000-2020 - Part 2

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The last chapter, “2000-2020”, defined by the 2001 crisis, reviews political graphic, auteur design, gender equity, and the passage from material to intangible design.

#EpicAnniversary | Asunción Macri

Engineer Mauricio Macri was inaugurated as president on December 10, 2015. The leader of the Republican Proposal Party (PRO) became president after working as the manager of Boca Juniors (1995 - 2008) and, in the public office sphere, as Chief of Government of the City of Buenos Aires (between 2007 and 2015). His campaign, based on the motto "Let's Change", was promoted as a fierce opposition to a potential fourth term of the Kirchner couple and their perpetuation in power, which was interpreted by some of the opposition media as a populist trend. His communication strategy capitalized on digital consumer statistics —focus group— and political marketing strategies that presented him as an icon of liberalism, who supported international market policies. The promotion scheme —led by the Ecuadorian philosopher Jaime Durán Barba— included an identity design of high chromatic impact, digital platform initiatives, positive and progressive communication, and a distinctive photographic and fashion style which originated the "PRO style". Barba, considered a guru political advisor in Latin America, published, alongside Santiago Nieto, such books as "El arte de ganar. Cómo usar el ataque en campañas electorales exitosas" (2011) and "La política en el siglo XXI: Arte, mito o ciencia" (2017).

#EpicAnniversary | COVID Health Emergency

A few months after he began his presidential term, Alberto Fernández, member of the party Frente de Todos, had to face the coronavirus public health emergency. On March 11, 2020 the World Health Organization officially designated as a pandemic the spread of COVID-19 throughout different continents. The crisis originated unusual joint actions among design, State, and private companies. The creation and development of innovative hospital equipment, movable attention centers, personal protection gear, and prevention campaigns was done in record time. The new geopolitical map, transformed by the closure of international borders and health restrictions, uplifted national technical and scientific development, a sphere that had been neglected in the previous years. Relevant projects prompted by the emergency were undertaken by experts connected to institutions like CONICET, UBA, UNLP, UNSAM, INTI in partnership with ANLIS-Malbrán, and several private labs, which developed the ARVAC and ARGENVAC vaccines and the Atom Protect facemask, which was produced by the small company Kovi S.R.L. using textile nanotechnology. UNTREF university designed such innovative medical devices as an "eco-bed" for modular hospitals and a booth to take care of feverish patients using 3D printers and biodegradable materials.

#EpicContext | Gender and diversity

Since the beginning of the XXIst century, multiple people and groups have been promoting fair and equitable conditions in productive and gender-related terms. This process was aligned with the 2005 feminist movement —known worldwide due to the symbolic green scarf connected to the National Campaign in Support of Legal, Safe and Free Abortion—. The feminist wave was further consolidated in 2015, when the motto Ni una menos ignited similar movements in all of Latin America. Alejandro Ros was one of the first artists who connected such an activist context to the field of design. He contributed in several arenas, like the underground nightlife scene and activist environments such as Casa Brandon, Queer Cultural Center (since 2004), and formats, for example by designing the covers of the cultural supplements Las/12 and Soy, by Página/12 (since 2000). His work made visible repressed topics like sexual diversity, polyamorous relations, and dissent behavior. In 2011, members of the FADU created the Design Cooperative based on the motto “Create design inspired by the people and for the people”. From a social and environmental approach, Sofía Bastanchuri, Carolina Cuiñas, Florentina Dib, Cristel Magnetto, Mora Monteverde, Silvia Núñez and Emilia Pezzati, began fostering collaborative and self-managed work with clients, suppliers, and buyers of the products and services they designed in their studio, located in the repurposed metallurgic factory IMPA (Buenos Aires). Some of their most outstanding projects are the ones they developed for the community of craftswomen Qom (Chaco) and the stoneware factory Durax, which was recovered and turned into the Cristal Avellaneda Cooperative. They have also led training and experience transfer workshops alongside other collectives. Following a similar path, the collective network of design workers Hay Futura (2019) was created with the goal of reflecting about design projects from a gender awareness perspective, alongside more than 150 women and gendering dissent agents. Based on a feminist and horizontal organizational design model, the collective currently questions and pinpoints stereotypes and outdated narratives that prevail in the cultural, economic, and productive arenas. In the field of exhibitions, the showcase Matrices. Mujeres del Diseño. Capítulo I: Origen y Activismo (2020), presented at the CCK and co-curated by IDA and Silvia Fernández, revealed the perspective of the triad “woman-project-design” through the experience of 31 iconic authors plus other unknown ones who have contributed to the discipline since the early "modernity", during the professionalization of the craft in the 70's, and up until the critical activism of present-day collectives. The academic production of Fernández, a designer, researcher, and editor, has explored the history of design in Latin America and the role women have played in project management and development. She has disclosed some ignored, though relevant topics in her books, for example, Señal Bauhaus (2019) about Sur, a magazine directed by Victoria Ocampo and Brecha de género. CIDI, Centro de Investigación de Diseño Industrial, 1962-1988, which features a prologue by Hay Futura (2021). Both publications are included in the Collection “Women in Argentine Design” published by Nodal, a printing press directed by Fernández herself. Simultaneously, Griselda Flesler offered the first lectureship on “Design and Gender Studies” at the FADU (UBA). Besides, she coordinated the university's Gender Unit. From such platforms, she was able to carry out formative projects implemented in diverse environments, like the Ezeiza Women's jail and the program UBA XXI. With the goal of producing narratives to make visible the forgotten women who had contributed to the project management sphere, the network “One day | One architect”, was created in 2015 by Zaida Muxi, a specialist in urbanism and gender. The network is currently coordinated by the Córdoba native architect and editor, Inés Moisset. The project stemmed from an idea that was originally put into practice in Spain and then expanded to the Americas. Another, similar project created in Argentina is the network, at present, led by Cayetana Mercé.

#EpicContext | Regionalisms

As a response to the 2001 economic debacle, self-production endeavors took off and allowed designers to create objects from local elements and encouraged them to consider the entire value chain of their products: starting with the raw materials, the development of techniques and craftwork, and the strategies to promote, show, and sell their pieces. After decades without innovations in the field, the juncture boosted alternative circulation and consumer logistics which diversified the cultural market in the capital city. Designo Patagonia was created in 2002 in the southern city of San Carlos de Bariloche. It was founded by Manuel Rapoport and Martín Sabattini, two Industrial designers trained at the National University of Córdoba. They merged their knowledge about environmental management, community Integration, and the reinterpretation of handcraft processes to boost their creations, which were often inspired by native materials. Their pieces, which display strong Patagonian features, have been recognized nationally and exhibited worldwide. In 2016, the couple designed, alongside a group of provincial institutions, the furniture line "Tierra del Fuego" ("Fireland"), made of Lenga wood (the main renewable forest resource in the region), aimed at catering school children and youth throughout different growth stages. In Cuyo, the stoneware enterprise Colbo restarted production in 2007. The iconic company, founded in 1953 by Colette Boccara, had closed in the early 80's due to social and political pressures. The new factory was reinstalled in San Rafael and, later at Guaymallen, in Mendoza. In this recent stage, the company reconverted its original handmade processes and mechanization technology; by doing so, Colbo was able to perfect the morphology of all products, based on the know-how contributed by Matías Jannello and the efficient productive management of Martin Endrizzi. Wustavo Quiroga strategically boosted the entire refunding process with the aim of vindicating the groundbreaking history of a pioneer woman who managed to consolidate an entire production chain that started with the raw materials found at the top of local mountains and ended with technological innovation applied to stoneware products which became integrated to gourmet circles. In the same region, the studio Boldrini & Ficcardi, directed and founded by UNCuyo designers, Víctor “Pupo” Boldrini and Leonardo “Gato” Ficcardi, has developed branding and packaging projects for the alcohol beverage sector in the wine producing country since 1991. They were true pioneers in the areas of brand naming and storytelling, achieving integral communication strategies that include label design and conceptual campaigns. They disrupted store displays by incorporating a visual and poetic language linked to the universe of wineries, which included references to ethnologists, literature, and science fiction. The studio currently represents more than 200 wineries, distilleries, and alcoholic beverages distributors In Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Spain, Italy, England, Japan, and the USA. In 2016 they were chosen to create the label for the table wine "Todos", which was sent by the Argentine Winegrowing Corporation to Pope Francisco.  
Actualmente, representan a más de 200 bodegas, destilerías y distribuidoras de bebidas alcohólicas de Argentina, Brasil, Chile, España, Italia, Inglaterra, Japón y EE. UU. En 2016 fueron seleccionados para crear la etiqueta del vino de misa “Todos”, enviado por la Corporación Vitivinícola Argentina al Papa Francisco. Other relevant designers connected to fanny label creations are Sergio Pérez Fernández (the son of Pérez Celis), who produced the labels for the Rutini Collection, New Age, and redesigned the label of Cafayate; the Zemma-Ruiz Moreno studio, which designed the Rutini Antología Julio Le Parc, under the artistic direction of Yamil Le Parc; and the Diego Giaccone Branding studio, renowned in the wine sector market.

The furniture company USOS Jujuy (2001 - 2016), owned by the architects Arturo Tezano Pintos and Carlos Ernesto Gronda, was created in San Salvador de Jujuy with the goal of mixing local concepts with professional design. Inspired by Andean culture, local materials, and ancient techniques, the studio has worked alongside wood, metal, and leather craftsmen to blend modern features with traditional pieces. Some of their collections are “Atada” (2002), "Carnavala" (2002), inspired by the northern carnival, and the line “Chamirí”, which represents a crossover between northern and eastern features. In 2007 they participated in the exhibition “Genealogies of the South” at the Malba, alongside Diana Cabeza and Alejandro Sarmiento. The showcase was curated by Carolina Muzi. After the firm was dismantled, Tezano Pintos continued working for Estudio Atmosphera, a studio specialized in architecture and interior design centered on territory-related premises. Yet another group of designers stood out in the branch of garment design. For example, Manuela Rasjido, a textile designer and artist from Catamarca, merged art-design and regional techniques. From her studio, located In the Calchaquíes Valleys, she created the "art to use" style by researching about Andean color production and experimenting with old handmade techniques to dye, spin, and knit clothes. Another native of the area who continued with Rasjido's legacy was the fashion and metal designer Roxana Santos Liendro who also dresses, necklaces, purses, and shoes made of llama wool and traditional textiles like aguayo and barracán, thus giving new meanings to northern landscapes. Simultaneously, the prestigious industrial designer and artist from Catamarca Cristián Mohaded is currently leading the local resignification trend. His creations recover the idea of creating an Argentine contemporary language that recognizes cultural diversity and the productive drive of local territories. His exhibition, Territorio Híbrido (MNAD, 2021) is a testimony of this quest and his achievements.

#EpicContext | Argentine Typography

The typographic boom of the 2000's recovered the pre-digital contributions of the masters in the art of writing like Angel Koziupa, who has created fonts, calligraphy, and logotype design for the past 40 years and calligrapher Ricardo Rousselot, based in Barcelona since 1975, who stands out for the stylistic refinement (featuring his characteristic "curls"), present in his brand, editorial, and packaging designs. Luis Siquot, who created the Art Department of the SRT at the UNC, studied In Germany and became a specialist in the digital typography design present in operational systems like Mac. Victor García was a pioneer in the field of digital font design. He created “Tangomaniacs” (2002) and the alphabetical font “Zootype”, the first Latin American font that won an award in the 2nd International Font Design Contest by Linotype (1997), which turned into a multi-variable, graphic adventure until 2013. The "Typography" course, created in 1987 at the FADU (UBA) by Rubén Fontana, was milestone that increased the value of typography in Argentina. The class engaged and encouraged both students and teachers alike. Fontana, a member of the ditellian school, collaborated in the university's graphic department with Juan Carlos Distéfano and Juan Andralis, who opened his own printing press called “El Archibrazo” (1968). Fontana's passion for typography boosted the production of tipoGráfica (1987 - 2007), an iconic, independent magazine distributed all over Latin America. Supported by the FADU, the magazine became the first mass media in the region to use its own font: “Fontana” (designed between 1994 - 1996; its second version appeared in 2001).
At the same time, his design studio developed several fonts aimed at fulfilling different functions, for example, the font “Distéfano”, named after Fontana's teacher.
In 2001 he organized the Encuentro Internacional TipoGráfica Buenos Aires at the Sheraton Hotel. More than 700 people attended the event, which featured international speakers and ten typography exhibitions in the Borges Cultural Center.
The encounter revealed how much Interest audiences had for typography and it fostered the creation of other, self-managed actions, such as T-convoca (2003 - 2009). In 2004 and 2006 the Latin Letters Biennials took place. The event, conceived and coordinated by tipoGráfica acknowledged with awards regional font design. The Latin Types Biennial has been organized since 2008. It has "continued" previous initiatives and became a place to celebrate the work of Latin American typographers by acknowledging both print processes and digital production. The biennial showcases a main exhibition that includes conferences and workshops offered simultaneously in 13 cities throughout Latin America. For the first time, in 2009, the International ATypi Encounter (International Typographic Association) is organized in Spanish. The event took place in Mexico and the Argentine representatives were Pablo Cosgaya and Miguel Catopodis; José Scaglione, the director of the foundry TypeTogether, acted as president. In 2011, ATypi organized its second international typography contest,“Letter.2”, in Buenos Aires. Regional foundries played a central role in the expansion of the project. In 2001, Alejandro Lo Celso founded PampaType. After working eight years in Mexico, he returned to Cordoba in 2010. They foundry offers designs based on handmade typography, then carefully implanting it in either print or screen supports. The font “Garonne”, requested as part of the visual identity of Toulouse (France) between 2005 and 2007, stands out among the foundry’s work. In 2002, the graphic designers collective constituted by Ariel Garofalo, Diego Giaccone, Alejandro Paul and Claudio Pousada founded Sudtipos, one of the most important foundries in the region. Paul continued the project and produced fonts that received acknowledgements by the Type Directors Club, Communication Arts, and Latin Types, among others. 
In 2011, Marcela Romero and Pablo Cosgaya founded Omnibus-Type, a collaborative, digital typographic foundry with branches in Spain, Mexico, and the United States. The endeavor was created with the aim of producing printing and web fonts as a response to and commercial requests like the ones ordered by Google Fonts. The foundry combines quality typographies in a unique way, in accordance with SIL Open Font license, which enables commercial use and free circulation. Other experts in the field are Panco Sassano, creator of such fonts as “Horizontes” and Julieta Ulanovsky, designer of the “Montserrat” font. In the field of lettering, designers like Carolina Marando and Laura Varsky, have implemented their expertise in illustration to create fonts such as “Blog Script” (Marando) and “Lady René” and “Lady Dodó” (Varsky). The studio Yani&Guille, led by Yanina Aravena and Guillermo Vizzari, specializes in the art of letter drawing, using calligraphy as identity. They have worked with important brands and have received several awards for their font and identity designs. For example, the identity design they created for the gastronomic festival Masticar received an SBD distinction. Some printers have maintained alive traditional hand and mechanical techniques during the XXIst century by developing independent projects produced using antique typographic machines: Patricio Gatti, is the handmade book printer and restorer of historical printing presses who leads Imprenta Ideal; the workshop Imprenta Rescate led by Leandro Jacob; Prensa La Libertad led by Federico Cimatti; and Papel Principal led by Natalia Raices and Paula Vergottini.

#EpicContext | State Policies

The MICA (Market of Argentine Cultural Industries) was created in 2011, in alignment with state policies aimed at boosting the economic elements of culture by encouraging production and commercialization in the fields of performing arts, audiovisual production, design, editorial work, music, and videogames. In an attempt to give a federal dimension to cultural productions, both physical and virtual spaces were created to foster commercial ties and expand the offer available on a national level, while enabling an integration to international markets. The operations that originated from that project allowed a quantification of national culture through statistics and projections of future strategies.
MICA, federal plans synthesize in complex programs all successful actions carried out previously on a regional level through MICA Regional, meetings organized by the federal government to Integrate different local territories: NEA in Formosa and Chaco, NOA in Tucumán and Jujuy; PATAGONIA in Bariloche; CENTRO in Córdoba and Rosario; Bs. As. in La Plata and Berazategui; and CUYO in San Juan and Mendoza. Since 2017, MICA Regional became RED MICA, a program that aims to keep record and consolidate markets, fairs, and festivals, thus creating a network of collaborative endeavors that encompasses more than 50 events throughout the country. Simultaneously, Latin American commonalities originated MICSUR, which included the participation of 10 countries. Three events were organized throughout the duration of Unasur; they took place in Mar Del Plata (2014), Colombia (2016) and, known as the MICBr, in Brasil (2018). At Design Sector, fostered relevant actions such as the Federal Design Encounter (2015 - 2017), the PDA, the Active Design Program in Misiones (2014), and the First International Encounter of Illustrators (2015), among others. MICA has continued managing massive events that include business rounds, training, conferences, lectures, exhibitions, and concerts. Such CABA events were organized every two years in places like: the Tribuna Plaza Complex (2011), Tecnópolis (2013), the Kirchner Cultural Center (2015), the Science Cultural Center (2017), the National Bicentennial House, and the Ricardo Rojas Cultural Center (2019). This year, from May 19 to 22, the 6th National MICA will take place, once more at the CCK. During the event the MICA Platform, a project featuring technology developed by ARSAT. MICA was created under the leadership and direction of Rodolfo Hamawi (2010 - 2014) and, later, by Natalia Calcagno (2014 - 2015). Between 2015 and 2019, when the Ministry of Culture became a Secretariat, Maximo Jacoby and Andrés Gribnicow were appointed directors. In 2019, again restructured as a Ministry, Luis Sanjurjo was named National Director of Cultural Industries and Lucrecia Cardozo became the Secretary of Cultural Development. The coordination of Sector Diseño was initiated by Paola Pavanello (2010 - 2015), later it was taken by Germán Lang (2012 - up to date) alongside María Boggiano (2016 - up to date).
Also, in 2011, appeared the Argentine Good Design Seal (SBD), an official award given by the National Ministry of Productive Development to national products that stand out for their quality, innovation, position in the market, and for participating in local and sustainable endeavors. Awards in five categories are given each year — industrial and transportation products; equipment; home, office, and leisure products; garment, shoes, and accessories; and strategic communication—. Renowned members of the jury select the winners and, by doing so, they help boost Argentine cooperatives and small and medium size industries that incorporate design strategies. For the past 10 years the SBD has turned into a key tool of the National Design Plan (PND), a government area meant to articulate Industry and commerce. Different strategies addressed to the enterprise sector include consulting sessions, business rounds, and export training. The SBD has already organized 10 events, acknowledged more than 1800 products, selected 1272 companies within the CABA region, Great Buenos Aires, Patagonia, Cuyo, Center, and the Great Big North area. With the goal of promoting and reaching out to a wider audience, the SBD has organized since its inception the Seal of Good Design Exhibition in places like the National Bicentennial House (2013), the MARQ (2016), the Metropolitan Design Center (2017), the Museum of Industry in Cordoba (2018) and Tecnópolis (2021), where it celebrated its 10th anniversary. In 2018, IDA Foundation joined SBD to create the SBD Permanent Collection, which comprises a diverse and representative selection of award-winning products. The collection includes more than 100 objects and design pieces, as well as institutional documents. Different directors have led the SBD through different paths, for example, the Secretary of Industry, Débora Giorgi and the industrial designer Bea Sauret, who conceived the SBD and directed it from 2011-2012 and 2016 - 2019. From 2013 to 2015, the coordination was in charge of Carolina Martínez. Between 2015 and 2020 Pablo Bercovich became general coordinator and, since 2020, that position has been in charge of Emmanuel Pan. The most recent editions have included relevant elements such as yearly catalogs, which have become a testimony of contemporary production. The art director of the catalogs is Sebastián Feinsilber; the infographics and illustrations are made by Ivan Longini; and Claudia Suboch is in charge of the graphic design. Currently, the SBD aims at including new productive sectors (knowledge economy), strengthening strategic sectors (medical technologies, food machinery, agricultural machinery), attracting more participants, and consolidating the program on a national level. The SBD also builds links with other international awards: G-Mark (Japan), Compasso d'oro (Italy), Chile designs (Chile), and the Ibero-American Design Biennial (Spain).

#EpicFeatured | ZkySky

The graphic designers, who graduated from the UBA, Valeria Dulitzky and Julieta Ulanovsky, have directed the design studio ZkySky since 1989. Specialized in design and visual communication, they form interdisciplinary teams that offer management, counseling, coordination, and project development for public and private companies. They work in the fields of identity and editorial design, applying strategies that connect and optimize them. Their approach is to consider those communication supports as signs and objects through which designers can create readable brands and appealing and meaningful editions. For ZkySky studio, each project implies the creation of a format that fosters an emotional and lasting feeling through a sensitive approach. They have developed projects for several public institutions (Secretary of Culture, Education, Economy and Health, Ministry of Education Evaluation, Connecting Equality Program, Transportation Observatory, Encounter Channel, Tecnópolis); organisms (CPAU, BID, UNICEF, and UNESCO); editorials and record labels (Eudeba, Planeta, Aguilar, Emecé, Grupo Aique, La Marca Editora, Tusquets, Reservoir Books, Atlántida Books, EMI, Sony, Atlantis, and Los Años Luz Records); and artists (for example, León Gieco, Kevin Johansen, Iván Noble, and Marcos López, among others). An outstanding piece that synthesizes their unique vision of design and porteño architecture in the editorial field is the first book they co-authored: El libro de los colectivos (2005). Their remarkable work as editors includes the saga Divino Barolo (2013), about the emblematic building that hosts their studio, Divino Salvo (2014), and Extraordinario Planetario (2019), about that experimental Buenos Aires city icon. They have contributed to the academic circle as faculty members of the FADU (UBA), Universidad de Morón, UNSAM. Currently they present lectures in diverse educational spaces. They have received such awards and acknowledgements as the BID (2020), the CMD Excellency Award (2014), and Ten Studios/Ten Years (2010), among others. They have showcased their work in exhibitions like La fête de graphisme (France, 2016) and Emociones Binarias (Mamba, 2014).

#EpicFeatured | Max Rompo

Graphic designer Max Rompo (San Francisco Solano, Buenos Aires, 1988) is an iconic representative of a new generation that matches, in quality, the work of past masters. He has produced work in the fields of artistic, editorial, and musical album design. His creations display an expressive digital language that makes them intelligent and sharp communication pieces. From all the different graphic and visual languages he knows, he excels at illustration, collage, photography, and experimental typography because he avoids pre-determined techniques or styles. Since 2015 he has worked under the direction of Lucrecia Rampoldi as a member of the design group at Penguin Random House. There, he has designed cover art for books and editorial collections with systemic coherence. He has also designed ludic and conceptual games for fiction books, essays, and published journalistic investigations, for example, the library collections of Jorge Luis Borges (2016), Rodolfo Fogwill (2020), and Selva Almada (2020). Since 2020 he has illustrated articles for the magazine Lengua, published by the same printing house. In the musical field, he has collaborated with Fito Paez since 2017 by designing his promotional campaigns, record covers, music videos, books, and concert sets and stages —for example, the streaming entitled "La conquista del espacio" at the Movistar Arena (2020) and the Los Angeles Dolby Theater (2019) —. In this respect, his body of work has become a visual universe that goes well beyond mere cover art design. Simultaneously, he designed pieces for government institutions: he developed publications for the National Ministry of Culture and co-created the identity system of the Kirchner Cultural Center. He has worked for music companies like Spotify (Sweden), Sony Music (USA), Da Vinci Publishing (Italy), DNA Music (Qatar); cultural companies such as Art Basel Cities, the University of California (Los Angeles), the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM); publications like Le Monde Diplomatique and Página | 12; and printing houses such as Vintage (USA), Alfred Knopf (USA), and Siamesa (Ecuador). As an independent artist, he has designed art books as a whole, considering them as conceptual objects that can channel artistic expressions, for example, volumes like Guillermo Kuitca Collected Drawings 1971-2017 (KÜLTUR BÜRO, Barcelona) and Unreachable Empires by Sigismond de Vajay (JRP|Ringier, Switzerland). Other independent pieces by Rompo include literary and music essays and spontaneous social protest posters. These pieces appeal to emotions and become well-thought digital vehicles meant to communicate processes while interacting with the audience and the users. His work has been showcased in several Latin American cities and countries like Australia, France, Germany, Iran, Italy, Poland, Russia, Serbia, Switzerland, Turkey, and Ukraine.

#Epic #ExpertOpinion 22 Epic Interviews

The section Expert Opinion, a crucial part of the curatorial program Epic, fostered valuable interactions with researchers, professors, journalists, editors, and other experts. Throughout 22 audiovisual interviews with national and regional design professionals, we have reflected about the past 100 years of design production in Argentina. In the chapter “1920 - 1940”, we talked with Francisco Liernur and Marta Levisman about architecture, urbanism, and modern furniture; with Belén Carballo about textile production in Santiago del Estero; and with Santiago Villanueva about mail communication and art. During the "1950" chapter, centered around the interconnections between design and art, we chatted with María Amalia García about the Concrete Movement and with Jorge Rivas about XXth century Latin American design. We interviewed Victoria Lescano to explore modern identity and creole symbology and in our conversation with Susana Villavicencio we discussed topics related to the Architecture School in Tucumán. The "1960" period encouraged us to travel throughout different regions in the country and chat with Armando Corpacci about the handcrafts and the renowned Carpet Factory in Catamarca and with Lolo Amengual about graphic and industrial design in metal mechanic companies in Cordoba. In the capital of the country, avant-garde movements emerged: in the arts, they originated at the Di Tella. We talked about that topic with Fernando García and with Maria Laura Carrascal about avant-garde expressions in garment design. In the chapter "1970 - 1980”, we interviewed Carlos Sallaberry about the CAYC and design project management. We also discussed group actions focused on experimental design with Ana Scotto. With Mario Gemin we addressed the topic of mass migration during the 70's and in our interview with Juan Carlos Grassi we dealt with issues such as the industrial field, modern fairs, and fair pavilions. For the "1990" period, Luciano Cassisi presented his views about the privatization of state enterprises and brand design, while Ana Geller shared his knowledge about infographics. In the final chapter "2000 - 2020", we listened to the opinions of Sergio Rybak —about the contributions of design to the new business models that emerged after the 2001 crisis— and Willie Peloche contributed with his knowledge about design in the alternative scenes at the turn of the century. Finally, Celeste Nasimbera shared ideas about fashion management, communication, and sales in different platforms and Laura Varsky talked about the role of women in Argentine design. This rich and significant material is available on our   YouTube channel. 

-Revista tipoGráfica, Nº 51, Año XVI, Abril-Junio, 2002, Buenos Aires.

Image Credits| Fundación IDA, Fondos Patrimoniales: 3. Subsecretaria de Comunicación y Contenidos de Difusión | 5. Designo Patagonia | 6. Colbo | 7. Cooperativa de Diseño | 8. Ros, Alejandro | 10. Sello del Buen Diseño | 11. MICA | 12. García, Victor  | 13. Paul, Alejandro | 14. Yani&Guille | 15-17. ZkySky | 18-20. Rompo, Max | 21. Fundación IDA. Archivos invitados: 1-2. Revista Anfibia | 4. El País | 9. Infobae